Resources - Chapter 16 Supplement

Marketing Ideas from A to Z

A

Acknowledgments
Always thank the person, company or organization that refers a client to you. Make sure to acknowledge others when they have been a help—either in writing or with a small token of appreciation.
Adopt-a-Highway
This is an excellent tool to increase visibility, but it can backfire if you don't keep the area clean. If you're a one-person business, consider joining with others. The highway sign could say "This road sponsored by the Associated Reflexologists of Santa Cruz." Make a banner (with your company name and number) that you can affix to the reflective garments you wear while cleaning the road. Post a sign in your office that says, "Proud sponsors of Highway 101."
Advice Column
Write an advice column regarding your field for a local publication. Not only is this educational, it builds your credibility by demonstrating your degree of expertise.
Announcements
Inexpensive promotional tools to enhance your visibility and keep you connected. Send out to your current clients and choice prospective clients to announce special offers, speaking engagements and changes that occur in your practice (e.g., the addition of new staff, a change in status, the incorporation of innovative techniques or equipment).
Answering Machines/Voice Mail
Necessary for communication with clients when you're busy. Keep your message welcoming and short; they're a good method of keeping clients informed of your status (as long as the message is current).
Answering or Appointment Services
Some people appreciate human contact more than a machine. Be sure the service is reliable and accurate. Appointment services can be a boon to your practice; they must have up-to-date status of appointment times.
Articles
Write articles for magazines, newspapers, trade journals, in-house publications and newsletters published by other organizations.
Assumptions
Don't assume anything when it comes to your clients; find out by asking them. Making assumptions is one of the most detrimental actions taken in business as well as in personal affairs.
Attire
You and your staff represent your business. Clients develop an attitude about your business based upon the way you look at work (e.g., slovenly appearance equals slovenly service).
Auctions
Donating services/products for silent and not-so-silent auctions provides you with free advertising and support for your community.
Audio Cassettes
Can be used effectively and inexpensively as talking brochures or as a means of instructing clients on how to do homework (e.g., visualizations, affirmations, exercises and stretches). As something unique you can also reply to correspondence or inquiries by audio tape.

B

Bags
Imprint bags with your company name, logo and position statement. Many people reuse bags, so your information gets seen repeatedly.
Bake Sales
Sponsoring or participating in local fundraising events, such as bake sales, helps promote you as an active member of your community and gets your name out to the public. You can even sell healthy baked goods at your office and donate the proceeds to charity. Be creative! Make cookies, cakes and cupcakes in the shapes of hands, feet or a full body.
Banners
Not only can these have your name, but your slogan and/or logo to be used at a booth or special event.
Benefits
Donating services/products as door prizes gives you free publicity and says you're interested in helping in your community.
Billboard Advertising
Seen by many people and is a good way of informing the public about you and your services. Look for high traffic locations such as well traveled main streets and intersections. Keep your copy short and to the point.
Birthday Cards
These cards demonstrate your concern and thoughtfulness. You can really make a client's day by enclosing a coupon for a free treatment or product.
Board Meetings
If you sit on the board of any organization, regular attendance and participation can lead to opportunities for marketing your services and products.
Book Signings
Co-sponsor a book signing at a local bookstore by a respected author in your field. Meeting the buying public and establishing rapport with the bookstores' sales staff is crucial for authors.
Booths
Many companies design booths that are inexpensive and portable. Booths accord you a quick and easy-to-find location for malls, health expos and local events.
Breakfasts
Volunteering to speak at local business "breakfast" clubs is a "free" marketing tool. Having breakfast with potential networking associates is a great way to start your day.
Brochures
Provides overall information about your business. Include logo, slogan, mission statement, methodology, expertise, benefits and a photo of you.
Business Cards
More than just your name, address and phone, it's a visual representation of you and your business. It can become a mini-brochure describing some of the benefits of your services/products. Set a number of cards to distribute in a certain period of time (e.g., 250 cards in one week) and go into stores, professional offices and just pass them out to people you meet on the street). Give a magnetized business card to each new client and every guest at your open houses and public speaking events. Most people put them on refrigerator doors where they're regularly seen, which makes them much more effective than a business card that gets relegated to a drawer.
Business Plan
Your business plan is the road map to your success. A thorough business plan has a marketing plan built into it.
Business Reply Cards

C

Catalogs
For those who sell products or offer training programs, catalogs are excellent marketing tools. Feature each item and its benefits. Look into bulk mailing rates for cost savings.
Celebrations
Celebrate milestones (e.g., opening, moving, anniversary, 100th client) and invite your clients, colleagues and prospective clients to celebrate with you. Provide refreshments, music and fun.
Canvassing
Take brochures, cards, fliers or circulars around to area businesses letting them know you're there, who you are and what you can do for them. Distribute information to your target markets.
Circulars
Make circulars informative, short and easy to distribute on car windshields, to use as bag stuffers, post on bulletin boards and place on counters.
Classified Ads
There are many possible places to place ads such as newspapers, trade journals, magazines, local business and health papers and event programs (e.g., tournaments, concerts, fundraisers).
Cleanliness/Neatness
A messy or dirty environment spills over in concept for clients to the way you conduct business and provide services. Fortunately, so does being clean and neat.
Client Calls
Clients like to know they're appreciated and cared about. Follow-up calls are essential.
Client Contact
Each minute spent with a client is a marketing minute. To make those minutes work for you provide excellent service, improve your relationship and offer helpful products.
Client Names
We all know how good it feels when people we work with remember our name and use it. This demonstrates that they're important, cared about and acknowledged.
Clinics
Offer clinics (hands-on, educational workshops) on your specific service or general wellness. In addition to clinics you host offer them in conjunction with other activities such as sporting events, tournaments, health fairs and store celebrations.
Columnists
Some write stories or series of articles on health related issues; find out about the columnists in your area and propose an interview or provide information to them.
Comment Cards
Give your clients the opportunity to voice their opinions about you and your company. Include one in your Welcome Kit, stack them in the waiting area and mail them to all your clients at least once a year.
Community Calendars
Various organizations, radio stations, and Public TV provide calendars of events for the community. If you're sponsoring or participating in a public event or conducting a seminar, have it posted on the various community calendars available in your area.
Competition
If you cannot fulfill a client's request (other than ones that may be illegal or unethical), or feel that another service/practitioner would best suit a client's needs, refer them to your "competition" so they can be served. They will remember you had their best interests in mind and not just your pocketbook.
Computer Bulletin Boards
Local computer groups have bulletin boards where members can post information about themselves and their services. Membership is usually free.
Computerized Telemarketing
This is the age of "surfing the net." Having a "home page" with your services and products opens the "world" to you and you to the world. Take advantage of the technology available to expand your visibility and your network.
Conferences
Attending or participating in service/product related conferences is another form of marketing and public exposure. Again, use that booth you designed to your best advantage.
Connections With Others
Let other related businesses know you will display signs and have information available in your office if they will do the same for you.
Consultations
A free consultation gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your expertise, answer questions and hand out information. Also, offer free services for local special events.
Contests
People love to play games! Contests bring attention to your business and add names to your mailing list. It's best to get people to come to your business to enter.
Convenience/Speed
Make it easy and fast for clients to do business with you. Time is valuable to both you and those you serve.
Coupons
Terrific for marketing to prospective clients (e.g., 50% off the first visit) and rewarding loyal ones (one free session after each 10 visits). Coupons dont cheapen your practice if they're tastefully done. Many wellness providers (e.g., dentists, optometrists, chiropractors and touch therapists) offer introductory specials.
Create Heros
Whenever an employee does something exceptional or a client reaches a particular milestone in treatment, celebrate their accomplishment and give them something tangible such as a certificate.
Credit Cards
Making it easier for people to pay, makes it easier for them to buy.

D

Days/Hours of Operation
Keep them consistent as much as possible for optimum dependability. You increase your chances for success if your hours and days of operation are more convenient for clients than your competitors' schedules.
Decor
First impressions are important. Your office should reflect your identity and create an atmosphere where clients feel comfortable, safe and relaxed. Add a festive touch by coordinating flowers, signs and holiday displays.
Demonstrations
Allow prospective clients to see/experience first hand what your services and products are all about first hand.
Dinners/Lunches
After letting people know who you're through introductory letters, postcards and other marketing tools, follow-up with a call, an appointment or get together for dinner/lunch. Don't just "do" dinner/lunch; get to know each other, explore common goals in your fields and determine how you can assist each other.
Direct Calling
Speaking directly with potential clients, other professionals, networking associates and your clients adds the personal touch to your marketing strategy.
Direct Mail
Postcards, fliers, catalogs, notices and announcements are inexpensive methods of staying in communication with your clients.
Direct Mail Coupons/Card Packs
Coupons are given to and compiled by companies and mailed to target markets; participants share in the mailing costs.
Direct Referrals
Referring clients directly to other professionals is one of the strongest threads in networking and is usually reciprocal. Setting up a network of related services and products is one of the best tools for effective business growth.
Directories
Take out listings in appropriate directories. Publish a directory of local allied wellness providers to be given away at major events, mailed out in promotional campaigns and distributed to other wellness providers.
Discount Sales
Giving a discount can help a prospective client decide to try your services and products. Used for rewards, introductions and referrals.
Display Kudos
Frame and display any press, complimentary letters and awards where they can be seen. This allows others to see your dedication and service to your profession. If you have too many to display at once, rotate them regularly.
Distribution
Given the products you sell, utilize as many methods of distribution for sale as possible to gain the widest spectrum. The same applies to distributing information about services and products.
Donate Services to Charities
Even donating an hour a week to a charity or community cause creates goodwill and word-of-mouth marketing.
Door Hangers
Effective tool for reaching potential clients when your target market is geographically based. It must convey immediate action (e.g., "Get rid of that nagging backache today!"). Inspire the recipient to give you a call by offering a discount, invitation to a seminar or free educational literature.

E

Emergencies
Coordinate an emergency response team of wellness providers to be ready during tough times like floods, hurricanes, fires or blizzards.
Expos & Health Fairs
Participating in these events is an excellent venue for networking: gives you exposure to other professionals in your field as well as their products and services; provides an opportunity to meet potential clients; and makes use of that booth you created.

F

Fax-On-Demand Systems
Allows callers to dial your number and retrieve your marketing information.
Fax Machines
Another piece of equipment that optimizes your ability to communicate and disseminate information in a timely manner. You can fax appointment reminders, announcements and press releases.
Flea Markets
This is a place where you can reach large numbers of people while demonstrating your products and services (and utilizing that booth).
Fliers
Used for short announcements about upcoming events, sales and changes in service; whatever is happening with your business that the public needs to know about. In addition to posting them around town mail at least 25 per week to prospective clients.
Free of Charge
Once in awhile, do something free of charge for your clients; perhaps a modality such as a hot pak or upon seeing they're enjoying having their feet rubbed, let them know and give them an extra five minutes.
Frequent Buyer Cards
Offer an exclusive discount on products or services) to frequent clients. Give a free session or product after a set number (e.g., "Your 11th session is free!") or dollar amount of purchases.

G

Gifts
Instead of always giving candy or food as gifts, help enrich someone's mind with a book, inspirational bookmark or a mug with a meaningful message. Establish goodwill and loyalty by giving small gifts to employees for work well done or that extra mile they go for you.
Gift Certificates
Wonderful way for clients to share their experience with others and a great marketing tool for you (e.g., a gift certificate for a session on a client's birthday!). Keep in mind that the profit isn't generated from the sale of the certificate, but from the subsequent sessions.
Golf Resorts
Post a sign offering a free session to members who have made a verifiable hole-in-one.
Grand Openings
This is a "grand" way of letting people know who you are, where you are and what you're all about.
Greeting Cards
These are a good method of connecting with clients, networking associates and referring professionals just to wish them good tidings.

H

Health Clubs
Submit a proposal for the health club to purchase gift certificates to give as an incentive to new members who pay in full upon initiation or when members reach a milestone goal.
Holidays
Decorate your office to match the holiday, offer special discounts for holidays and give specialty gifts (e.g., cinnamon-scented oil for Thanksgiving, sports bottles for the Summer Solstice).

I

Introductory Letters
Send letters to allied wellness providers to develop mutual referrals. Send at least two letters each week until you have amassed your desired network.
Introductory Seminars
The focus is introducing your services/products to prospective clients. Having introductory prices available helps fence sitters make a move in your direction.
Invitations
Can be verbal, hand-delivered or mailed. Invite people to see your facilities, come to a free demonstration or call for information. Warmly given or nicely printed on paper, make sure your offer is inviting.

J

Jargon
Avoid using jargon unless you're certain your market/clients know the terminology.
Jingle
Create a catchy tune and phrase that easily identifies your company (particularly for radio and television advertising).

K

Keynote Speeches
Advise your professional associations and community organizations that you're available as a keynote speaker.
Kiosks
Post promotional materials on kiosks at malls, colleges and pavilions. Check for regulations first.
Kites
Design a kite with your logo and fly it prominently.
Knowledge is Power
Ascertain your current and potential clients' needs, desires and goals.

L

Lectures
Giving lectures on your service/products provides credibility to you as a professional, educates the public and becomes a vehicle for sales.
Little Things
Make doing little things for clients a matter of business policy. These little things help establish client loyalty.
Location
This is an important component to the success of a business. A poor location can break a business even if your service and products are good. If you're in an area that is inconvenient or unsafe, people will seek out other providers.
Logo
A graphic representation of your business that helps people quickly recognize your company.

M

Mailing Lists
Keep accurate and up to date. Include clients, prospects, practitioners, networking associates and companies/individuals in related fields. Trade lists with others who provide services or products to your target markets.
Memberships
Join professional associations, business groups and service organizations.
Mistakes
We all make them and the best way to handle them is with no excuses—just plain honesty. Create a "goof gift" to give to clients when you or a staff member makes a mistake.

N

Networking
A very important part of marketing; join networking organizations, community service organizations, clubs; and participate in community special events. Networking is a great way to establish trust and build professional relationships.
Newcomers Welcome Kit
Send a kit to new clients as soon as they book their first appointment. Include several business cards, brochure, pertinent information, product samples and educational/promotional materials on the benefits of your services/products.
Newsletters
Used as a consistent marketing tool, they establish your expertise and educate the public. Newsletters can also be sent to other health professionals and potential clients for marketing purposes. Another idea is to write articles or place ads in other's newsletters.
Newspaper
Submit opinion pieces, articles, letters to the editor, press releases and calendar listings. Get a newspaper reporter to interview you. Also place display and classsified ads.

O

Open Houses
Hold quarterly and special holiday open houses for colleagues, businesses in your community, prospects and clients.
Order Forms for Product Sales
Have these available for quick, impulse sales as well as for those who like to ponder. The elements to successful product sales are quality, availability and convenience.

P

Painted Cars/Car Signs
Provides great coverage as you go through your day; draws attention as it's unusual to see unique, eye-catching things on cars.
Package Deals
Putting together packages for services and products that save clients money can improve sales without increasing marketing costs.
Pamphlets
Detailed information about you, your services, philosophy, mission statement, benefits, specific techniques and health tips.
Park or Street Bench Advertising
Another underutilized method of reaching the general public. Place ads on benches that are seen by your target markets (e.g., in front of stores they patronize).
Parties
Plan theme parties such as "Fluid Motion" and decorate the place with pictures of sea creatures (or stuffed toys), play ocean music and show videos of underwater life moving gently, easily and fluidly. You can also have clients sponsor parties where you demonstrate your services to their friends.
Pens
Pass out imprinted pens to clients, colleagues and people involved with your target markets.
Personalized gift items
Also known as premiums and specialty advertising. Keep an assortment of inexpensive, fun, useful items to give away.
Phone Attitude
How the phone is answered can either foster or damage a relationship. Remember warmth, enthusiasm and helpfulness are key marketing tools. "Yeah, what do you want? I'm tired and you're bothering me" attitude doesn't work!
Pizza Box Fliers
The average family orders pizza an average of one per week. Arrange for your fliers to be put on the top of each box from your local pizzeria.
Postcards
Fast, easy and inexpensive method of reminding clients of follow-ups, appointments, announcements or just saying hello. Also a good technique for generating new clients.
Posters
Have posters made to put in windows or on bulletin boards at related businesses (e.g., health-food stores, sports facilities and fitness clubs).
Press Conferences
Generally used by large companies and firms in order to relate information affecting the general public.
Press Releases
Short statements for publication (in magazines, newspapers, newsletters and journals) or broadcast (radio and television) regarding your services, products and publications. Advise your "net" of exciting events such as hiring someone, forming an association, expanding your services, adding new equipment, hosting an open house or facilitating a workshop. Also send press releases to clients and colleagues.
Pricing
One of the main factors clients use in choosing services/products. Find out what the going rates are in your area and set your prices accordingly.
Professional Journals
Not only a good place to advertise, but also to write articles and make yourself known. Writing adds to your credibility as a professional.
Public Awareness Campaign
Join with other people in your specific field and create a public awareness campaign through advertisements, articles, interviews and public speaking.
Publicity
Inform the media about anything newsworthy concerning your business.
Public Service Tie-In
Sponsor events such as the blood donor mobile unit, police fingerprint unit for children or fire department home safety seminars.
Public Speaking
Give talks at business associations, clubs and public service organizations. Join an organization like Toastmasters to learn platform speaking techniques and gain confidence.

Q

Qualify
Design your marketing materials so that they actually pre-screen clients.
Quotes
Use quotes from people who are prominent within your target market.

R

Radio
An advertising medium that reaches large numbers of people. Take an ad, sponsor a program, become a guest speaker on local talk shows or host a wellness talk show.
Raffles and Prizes
Providing services/products for special events for raffles and prizes helps in getting your name out to the public.
Receptions
Often given to welcome and introduce new employees, associates and mergers.
Referral Networks
Essential as a marketing tool; not only benefits you but provides the opportunity for you to assist others with their growth and prosperity.
Referral Cards
These cards encourage clients to promote your practice. Traditional referral cards offer the recipient a discount (e.g., $10 off the initial session). If you really want to inspire enthusiasm from your clients, offer them the same discount whenever a card is redeemed.
Refreshments
Offering healthy tidbits (e.g., bottled water, juice, tea, fruit) to clients creates an atmosphere of warmth and caring. A small gesture as this can produce a dramatic effect.
Reprints
Advertising is costly and articles appear in print only once. You can inexpensively reprint them so they're available for mailings, handouts and signs.
Restaurants
Place a display with your cards and brochures next to the cash register (and put coupons from the restaurant in your waiting area).
Retreats
Either sponsor a retreat or provide your services at retreats held by local companies and associations.
Reunions
Attend class reunions and let people know what you're doing. Host a reunion for all your clients who have completed a treatment course.
Rewards/Incentives/Gifts
Submit proposals for companies to offer your services for customer or employee rewards. They could offer certificates for sales incentives, to honor employees of the month, to use as premiums with their customers and to give as holiday gifts for employees (it's certainly classier than a gift certificate for a frozen turkey).

S

Sandwich Boards
Directs the public to your products and services at your location. Make sure they're colorful and easy to read from a distance.
Satisfied Customers
One of the most valuable marketing tools is a customer who is satisfied with your quality of service and its value. They are your greatest ally and the impetus for your word-of-mouth campaign.
Scholarships
Sponsor an academic or sports scholarship for children, young adults or members of your target markets.
Scripts
Providing your employees with scripts for various circumstances helps guide them in representing your business to its optimum and aids in deterring the disasters "winging it" can create.
Searchlights
A flashy, unique way to direct people to your location and draw attention to a special event.
Seminars
Establishes you as an authority in your field, lends credibility, provides a catalyst for your services and products, and educates the public.
Service
One of the main reasons clients select and stay with a business. Good or poor service means client retention or loss and ties directly into marketing through word-of-mouth.
Shopping Cart Signs
Many people are in a hurry and stressed when shopping—especially after work. Create a sign that makes them think about how good they would feel after utilizing your service/products.
Sign Language
Learn to communicate in sign language so you can offer services to the hearing impaired.
Signs (Inside)
Hang signs and posters announcing specials. Also emphasize services such as "Gift Certificates Available."
Signs (Outdoors)
Your sign should be clear and large enough to be easily seen. Include your logo if economically feasible. Your location sign needs to be easily and quickly identifiable.
Skywriting
How often do you see writing in the sky? Gets your attention, huh?
Smiles/Greetings/Goodbyes
Rarely thought of as a marketing tool, yet reflect on how often you go back to a business where no one smiles, greets you warmly or says, "Good-bye, I hope we helped you and look forward to seeing you again."
Solicitation Letters
Sent to prospective clients asking them to try your services/products or to professionals seeking mutual referrals.
Special Events
Encourage publicity by being a sponsor of (or participating in) local events or holding unusual events at your place of business.
Special Promos & Displays
Boost marketing efforts with "in-store" displays featuring your products, cards, brochures and fliers that explain your services and benefits. Attract business by providing discount fliers that can be redeemed at the time of the appointment.
Sponsor an Event or Community Activity
Involves your business in the community and helps you meet potential clients.
Sponsor an Athletic Team
Print T-shirts with your name and logo for the team to wear; show up at the games to support your team; and display a sign in your office that says, "Proud sponsor of the ABC Cycling Team!"
Sporting Events
Volunteer your services at local sporting events, senior and special Olympics.
Statement Stuffers
Include information about specific products or services whenever you send out statements to clients. You can also place your brochure in other people's billing statements (just make sure they go to your target markets).
Stationery
A visual representation of your business; make sure it conveys your desired image.
Surveys/Questionnaires
Great way to get the "pulse" of your clients and discover what you're doing right and what needs to be changed: find out what clients want, like, dislike and their opinion of your services.
Sweepstakes
Another interactive method of calling attention to your business and getting additional names for your mailing list.

T

Television
Become a guest on local television shows. Place commercials which demonstrate your services and/or products and their benefits—fully utilize the dynamics of music, words and pictures.
Testimonials
Nothing hits home like personal accounts of the success of your products and services; use in marketing tools, advertising and seminars. Always use full names and if possible the title, company and city.
Theme Festival
Band together with nearby businesses and hold a gala event such as "Spring Festival" or "Winter Warm-Ups."
Theme Week
Devote a week to a particular activity (e.g., Mobility Week) and set up activities centering on mobility issues. Coordinate with your local government to sponsor city-wide events.
Toll-Free (800/888) Numbers
For those marketing products, giving seminars or conducting lectures, having a toll-free number gives prospective clients an additional reason to call, even if it's just for information. That information call can turn into a sales call.
Tournaments
Volunteer short treatment sessions for participants. You can also sponsor a refreshment stand—just be sure you have a large display sign or banner. Offer free sessions to the winners or even propose that the tournament coordinators purchase a number of certificates to be given as prizes.
Trade Directory
Advertise in local trade directories. They are usually the first place people look when they want your specific service and/or products.
Trainings
Training other professionals establishes your credibility and expertise. They range from an evening class to a weeklong intensive training.
Transit Advertising (buses, taxis, depots)
Directs the public to your services and products as your image is driven all over town and seen by those who have to wait for their rides.

U

Umbrellas
If you live in a rainy city, purchase a stock of umbrellas with your logo imprinted on them and loan/give them to clients who forget their own.
Uniforms
Create a unique, professional image by putting your logo, position statement or favorite design on clothing.

V

Vacation Nights
Sponsor a "health" vacation with guest speakers, activities, drawings and show slides (e.g., spa destinations, great places to hike and boat).
Videotapes
A unique method of presenting and demonstrating your services and products which can be left with other professionals for marketing; have clients view them while waiting to see you; use as part of a proposal for a corporate contract; and show as an educational tool for the public.
VIPs
Turn your customers into VIPs. Give them the opportunity to avail themselves of special sales and promotions.
Voice Mail Services
Can be used as a primary message service or to back up an answering machine in case of mechanical failure.

W

Welcome Wagon
This organization greets new residents in specific neighborhoods and delivers gifts and coupons from local businesses.
Window/Store Front Displays
Create an inviting display showing your services or products; make it colorful and catchy to grab the public's attention and change it frequently. These can also be created at related businesses, not just your own. Some malls even rent "Window Display" areas in front of vacant stores or have special display alcoves.
Word-of-Mouth
One of the most powerful resources for business; satisfied and dissatisfied clients talk and talk and talk....
Workshops
Conduct workshops/classes in your area. Advertise in newspapers and local magazines, mail fliers and hang posters. Do free lectures which you can advertise at no cost by sending out Public Service Announcements (PSAs) to print media and radio stations.
Writing Articles
Good method of demonstrating knowledge in your field, educating the public and making yourself known.

X

X-Rays
If you're a chiropractor or dentist, offer free x-rays upon initial visit.

Y

Yellow Pages
Used extensively by the public for locating services. Place your listing under the most logical category if you can only afford one listing, otherwise list under each applicable category.

Z

Zoological society
Sponsor an animal or event at your local zoo. Sponsorships are often published in the society's newsletters and if the contribution is significant, the zoo might even place a plaque (with your name) on its premises.